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Corrections are one of the most important parts of the criminal justice system. Corrections not only deal with the rehabilitation of inmates that are housed in prisons or jails, but also look after the persons that are placed on parole and or probation. The topic of discussion is to research and evaluate past, present, and future trends pertaining to the development and operation of institutional and community-based corrections. Identifying and analyzing current and future issues prisons and prison administrator’s face today will also be discussed.
The practice of detaining the accused can be traced back to the days of civilization and governments. Incarcerating inmates in prison for the purpose of punishment is a recent phenomenon. In the eighteenth century in Europe, prison was not imposed as punishment for offenders; there was a dual system of punishment with different penalties, which depended on the offenders’ social and economic status. If a member of high nobility were found guilty of violating the law, he or she were fined or sentenced to forfeit some or all of their land and property. If a more serious crime was done, he or she would do hard labor or be banished for life.
If someone of the lower class committed a crime, he or she may have been tortured, mutilated, or even executed. Punishment was done in public and was cruel. The Howard League for Penal Reform (2011) website, prisons were mainly where people were held while awaiting trial or punishment; it was rarely used for punishment. Women, men, children, murderers, and debtors were all held together in one local prison. The prisons were badly maintained and the guards and wardens were neglectful to the prisoners. Disease killed off many of the prisoners; the prisons were not kept clean at all. Around the 18th century is when hard labor started to come about. The Howard League for Penal...
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