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Change Frameworks for Organizational Diagnosis
“HOW” to Change
•• This• chapter• differentiates• between• HOW to• create• organizational• change,•its•process,•and•WHAT should•be•changed,•the•content.•Change• leaders•must•understand•both. •• A• modified• version• of• Beckhard• and• Harris’s• change• management• process•is•developed•in•depth.•The•model•asks:•(1)•What•is•going•on• in•the•organization?•(2)•Why•change?•(3)•What•is•the•gap•between•the• existing•and•desired•states?•(4)•How•do•we•close•this•gap?•and•(5)•How• do•we•manage•during•the•transition•phase? •• These• explicit• models• will• help• change• leaders• articulate• their• implicit• models•of•how•organizations•work•and•how•to•change•their•organizations.
weeping demographic changes, technological advances, geopolitical shifts, and pressures to be sensitive to our physical environment are combining with concerns for security and organizational governance to generate significant pressure for organizational change. Awareness of the political, economic, sociological,
and technological (PEST) aspects of any organization’s external environment forewarns the need to pay attention to such factors. Furthermore, it alerts managers to attend to their organizations’ relevant environmental contexts and to decide whether they need to take some action as a result. McDonald’s is one of many organizations scanning its environment and making decisions about changes to its products as a result of changes in its environment. The recession of 2008 to 2009 put pricing pressure on the restaurant business. McDonald’s responded with a continuous stream of new products. Since 2004, it has introduced the snack wrap, several salads, specialty coffees, and, most recently, the Angus burger, a 1/3-lb. burger.1 These product innovations have led to store sales increases and improved profits. More recently, McDonald’s has embraced the “green...
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