Instrumental Conditioning

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Submitted by to the category Philosophy and Psychology on 03/07/2013 07:55 AM

Instrumental conditioning often known as operant conditioning, pairs a response with a reinforcement in discrete trials; reinforcement occurs only after the response is given

operant conditioning - conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response.

The design of an instrumental conditioning program must carefully consider the nature and role of the two major components--stimulus and response (S-R).

We use the term operant (or instrumental) conditioning to describe one type of associative learning in which there is a contingency between a behavior (BH) and the presentation of a biologically significant event (the "reinforcer", outcome or unconditioned stimulus: US).

Instrumental conditioning also known as Operant Conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Instrumental conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning also called respondent conditioning in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior". Instrumental behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of respondent behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions.

Where classical conditioning illustrates S-->R learning, operant conditioning is often viewed as R-->S learning

It is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again.

The three-term model of instrumental conditioning (S--> R -->S) incorporates the concept that responses cannot occur without an environmental event an preceding it, for example, an antecedent stimulus.

While the antecedent stimulus in instrumental conditioning does not elicit or cause the response it can influence its occurance.

* It is the stimulus that follows a voluntary response (i.e., the...

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