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Decision Making types – programmed, non-programmed, crisis

* Programmed: Apply solutions from past experience to a solve problems that are familiar, straightforward and clear with respect to information needs.

* Non-programmed: Apply specific solutions crafted for a unique problem, with the problems often involving choice of strategies and objectives in situations of some uncertainty.

* Crisis: A crisis is an unexpected problem that can lead to disaster if not resolved quickly and appropriately. Managers in progressive organizations expect that crises will occur and plan ahead on how to deal with them.

Traditional Change Process

* Phase 1 Unfreezing: Is the phase during which a situation is prepared for change, and felt needs for changes are developed. This is done by; establishing a good relationship with people involved, helping other realize that present behaviours are not effective, minimizing expressed resistance to change.

* Phase 2 Changing: Implement change. This is done by; identifying new, more effective ways of behaving, choosing appropriate changes in tasks, people, culture, technology and structure, taking action to put these changes into place.

* Phase 3 Refreezing: Is the phase in which change is stabilized. This is done by; creating acceptance and continuity for the new behaviours, providing any necessary resource support, using performance-contingent rewards and positive reinforcement.

Ethical models

* Obstructionist strategy: avoids social responsibility, reflects mainly economic priorities.

* Defensive strategy: seeks to protect organization by doing the minimum legally required.

* Accommodative strategy: accepts social responsibility; tries to satisfy prevailing economic, legal and ethical performance criteria.

* Proactive strategy: meets all criteria of social responsibility, including discretionary performance.

Ethical dilemmas

* An ethical dilemma occurs when someone must decide whether to...