Hundred Years War

Submitted by: Submitted by

Views: 353

Words: 2765

Pages: 12

Category: World History

Date Submitted: 05/18/2011 03:12 PM

Report This Essay

The Hundred Years’ War was a series of wars fought between the English, who were known as the House of Plantagenet, and the French, who were known as the House of Valois between the years 1337 and 1453. The two houses were fighting over the French throne, and the background behind the war goes all the way back to William the Conqueror’s Conquest of England, which occurred in 1066. The war affected military technology, changes in government, and the reshaping on continental Europe. Ultimately, the war itself saw both the English and French make peace multiple times, only to continue quarrelling, with the French and English winning different sections of the war. The war shows the persistence of Edward III and his successors in their claim to the throne of France.

The troubles begin with royal intermarriages. Edward II of England was married to Isabella of France, whose father was the current king of France. In 1324, four years before the start of the Hundred Years’ War, Edward II lost a battle in which he lost much land in France, but he still controlled Gascony, which was located in the southern part of France. When the French King Charles IV died, he had no sons. By the English definition of feudal law, this made Edward II’s son, Edward III, the heir to the throne of France. However, the French were not in agreement with this action. According to French law, the heir to the throne belonged to Philip III.

After Philip took control of France, Gascony was still in English hands. Edward wanted to win back the land lost by his father. Philip and Edward decided on a treaty that let Edward maintain Gascony, but in return he had to give up his claim to the throne of France. Edward then proceeded to go to war with Scotland. Philip saw this as a chance to take back Gascony with all his forces, but he did not expect the English to win so quickly in Scotland. England maintained Gascony.

On All Saints’ Day in England in 1337, Edward announced that he was...