Evolution of Medical Science

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Date Submitted: 09/17/2011 12:40 PM

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Primitive humans depended on the supernatural spirits to heal their sick, while the modern medicine relies on science.

Prehistoric (8000 BC): During this age, the earliest humans believed in spirits and supernatural forces. The humans believed that the Shamen are able to contact the spirit world and seek the guidance of the dead ancestors. These spirit healers were possibly the first doctors as per archaeologists. Trepanning is considered as the "primitive brain surgery" performed during this period. Shamen still play an important part in certain Native American and African cultures.

Egyptian Medicine (2000 BC): The Egyptians believed that the goddess Sekhmet to cause or cure diseases and the priests played a crucial role in Egyptian medicine. The world has seen the specialists in obstetrics and gynecology during this time. The compression technique used by the Egyptian priests to stop bleeding is matching to the today's medical technique.

Greeks and Romans (450 BC to 300 AD): The Greek philosopher "Hippocrates" is seen as the father of the modern medicine. Hippocrates believed the four humors "Blood, Phlegm, Black bile and Yellow bile" balance the body. The method of examination and diagnosis is learnt from the Greek physicians. Galen was a Greek physician also the principal doctor for the gladiators. He acquired the knowledge of function of the body by dissecting animals. This helped Romans to improve their techniques in surgery. Romans developed new instruments for the surgery and treated the wounded soldiers in the war. Romans acquired the skills to treat bladder stones, hernias and cataracts. Romans also realized there was a link between dirt and disease. They build the sewers to remove wastes safely and supplied clean drinking water. This helped in reducing the diseases.

The middle Ages (500-1400 AD): The doctors in the middle ages were usually priests or other scholars. They believed sickness to be a punishment from God for sins committed. Using herbal...