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Date Submitted: 02/08/2009 07:33 PM

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o recognize the broad scope of quality, the concept of Total Quality (TQ) emerged. According to Evans and Lindsay (1999), a definition of total quality was endorsed in 1992 by the chairs and CEOs of nine major U.S. corporations in cooperation with deans of business and engineering departments of major universities, and recognized consultants. Their definition was: "Total Quality is a people-focused management system that aims at

continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower real cost. TQ is a total system approach ( not a separate area or program ) and an integral part of high-level strategy; it works horizontally across functions and departments, involves all employees, top to bottom, and extends backward and forward to include the supply chain and the customer chain. TQ stresses learning and adaptation to continual change as keys to organizational success. The foundation of total quality is philosophical : the scientific method. TQ includes systems, methods, and tools. The systems permit change; the philosophy stays the same. TQ is anchored in values that stress the dignity of the individual and the power of community action". Similarly, Procter and Gamble sees TQ as "….the unyielding and continually improving effort by everyone in an organization to understand, meet, and exceed the expectations of customers".

The term total quality management (TQM), has been commonly used in the present era to denote the system of managing for total quality. This term was actually developed within the U.S. Department of Defense and was later renamed Total Quality Leadership. TQM is a total, company-wide effort – through full involvement of the entire workforce and focused on continuous improvement – that companies use to achieve customer satisfaction. TQM is both a comprehensive managerial philosophy and a collection of tools and approaches for its implementation. There is no consensus on what constitutes TQM, almost every organization defines it...