The Constitution of India

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The Constitution of India (Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान, see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of the government and spells out the fundamental rights, directive principles and duties of citizens. Passed by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, it came into effect on January 26, 1950.[1] The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the declaration of independence of 1947. It declares the Union of India to be a sovereign, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty; the words "socialist", "secular" and "integrity" were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment.[2] India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on January 26 each year as Republic Day.[3] It is the longest[4] written constitution of any sovereign country in the world, containing 444 articles, 12 schedules and 94 amendments[5], for a total of 117,369 words in the English language version. Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. After coming into effect, The Constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India. Being the supreme law of the country, every law enacted by the government must conform to the constitution.


[edit]Structure of the Constitution

The Constitution, in its current form, consists of a preamble, twenty-two parts containing three hundred and ninety five articles, twelve schedules, ninety-four amendments, and five appendices.


Main article: Preamble to the Constitution of India

The Preamble states:

The original Preamble to the Constitution of India.

“ | WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN

SOCIALIST[Note 1] SECULAR[Note 1] DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its...