Chapter 2 Outline

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* Chapter 2: The Earth

Section 1-Planet Earth.

Prediction: We will learn about Earth’s physical nature.

Our Solar System.

Sun is the center of our Solar System.

Sun is 109 times wider than Earth.

Earth is part of our Solar System.

Our Solar System is made up of the Sun and all objects that revolve around it.

Sun’s mass causes gravity that keep planets in orbit.

The Planets: Neighbors in Space

Planets are the largest objects in our Solar System.

Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are the inner planets.

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto are the outer planets.

Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids


Small, irregularly shaped objects

Mainly between Mars and Jupiter


Made of icy dust particles and frozen gases

Looks like bright balls with long feathery tails (fire)


Chunks of rock and iron

They burn them up before they reach Earth’s surface.

Getting to know Earth.

Earth is really a rounded object, wider from the center than from top to bottom.

Earth is the largest of the inner planets.

Water, Land, and Air

About 70% of the earth’s surface is water, and about 30% is land.

Oceans, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water make up the hydrosphere.

Land makes up lithosphere, the Earth’s crust.

Air is part of the atmosphere, which is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases.

The part of Earth that supports life is the biosphere.


Natural features of Earth’s surface made up of physical features with a particular shape or elevation.

Major landforms: Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains.

Others include valleys, canyons, and basins.

Most visible landforms are the continents.

Earth’s Heights and Depths

The highest Point is Mt. Everest (South Asia)

The lowest dry land point is Shore of the Dead Sea (Southwest Asia)

The deepest Depression (under the sea) is the Mariana Trench (southwest of Guam)