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What was Spartan's involvement in the Greco-Persian wars?

Spartan involvement in the Greco-Persian, mainly the Second Persian Invasion, was a major contribution to the eventual outcome of the Greek's victory over the invading Persians. How this happened even though the Persian's had an overwhelming force which outnumbered the Greeks, 5 to 1, is a mystery that has been thoroughly researched by numerous historians all over the world. The main source of research is that of Herodotus, a Greek historian who is known as the "Father of History." However his information has been criticised as being more of story teller than a retell of history such as his estimation of Persian army numbers being a great exaggeration of what it should have been. Using their renowned and powerful phalanx, the Spartans were able to push back the Persians in two historical battles. These two historical battles were the Battle of Thermopylae, famed for having being a battle that showed that numbers aren't instrumental in a victory, and the battle of Plataea, a decisive battle that signified the starting of an offensive turn against the Persians by the Greeks.

Amount of each force

The size of the Spartan force varied in each battle they took part in. In the first battle, the battle of Thermopylae, the Spartans had a miniscule force of 300 trained men, each bearing a son. They were led by the Spartan king, Leonidas, a man who was forced to only bring along 300 men with him due to the occurrence of the "Olympic truce," a truce that stops Sparta from mobilising an army due to it being though as sacrilegious. At this time there was also the Spartan celebration of the Carneia, a festival in honour of Apollo, which again prevented Spartan from mobilising an army as military activity is forbidden in this time (Because of this Sparta didn't participate in the Battle of Marathon). The Spartans later fight again in the Battle of Plataea, fortunately they were not restricted from mobilising an...