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Term | Definition | Chapter |

A priori contrasts | A special class of tests used after the null hypothesis was rejected with the F test to compare measurements of specific populations. | 16 |

Alternative hypothesis | That a difference exists between the sample parameter and the population statistic to which it is compared; the logical opposite of the null hypothesis used in significance testing (notation: HA ). | 16 |

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) | A statistical test for testing the null hypothesis that the means of several populations are equal; test statistic is the F ratio; used when you need k independent samples tests. | 16 |

Bayesian statistics | An approach that goes beyond sampling data for making decisions by including all available data--specifically subjective probability estimates based on general experience rather than on specific data collected (see Appendix B). | 16 |

Chi-square (X2) test | A non-parametric test of significance used for nominal measurements. | 16 |

Classical statistics | An objective view of probability in which the decision-making rests totally on an analysis of available sampling data where a hypothesis is rejected or false based on the sample data collected. | 16 |

Correlation hypothesis | Variables occur together in some specified manner without implying that one causes the other. | 16 |

Critical value | The dividing point(s) between the region of acceptance and the region of rejection; these values can be computed in terms of the standardized random variable due to the normal distribution of sample means. | 16 |

F ratio | The result of an F test, done to compare measurements of k independent samples. | 16 |

Inferential statistics | Includes the estimation of population values and the testing of statistical hypotheses. | 16 |

k independent samples test | The parametric test used when interval or ratio measurements are taken from three or more samples (ANOVA), and the nonparametric test used when nominal...