Prince Henry V: King of England

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Henry V (Welsh: Harri V) 16 September 1387 - 31 August 1422[1][2]) was King of England from 1413 until his death. From an unassuming start, his military successes in the Hundred Years' War, culminating with his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt, saw him come close to conquering France.


[edit] Early life

Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle, son of Henry of Bolingbroke, later Henry IV, and sixteen-year-old Mary de Bohun. Two dates are suggested: 9 August or 16 September, in either 1386 or 1387.[1][2] At the time of his birth during the reign of Richard II, Henry was not in line to succeed to the throne, preceded by the king and possibly another collateral line of heirs.

Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly. The young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited the castle at Trim in Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, the Lancastrian usurpation brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir to the kingdom of England. He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation. He was created Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the Chancellor of the university.[3]

From October 1401, the administration was conducted in his name.[citation needed] Less than three years later, Henry was in command of part of the English forces—he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Harry Hotspur at Shrewsbury in 1403.[4] It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was almost killed by an arrow which became stuck in...