Review of Related Literature

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CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

A. Factors influencing the hard and hot jobs

David C. Alexander (1982) states that there are two major types of tough jobs, those that are tough on the musculoskeletal system and those that are tough on the cardiovascular system. Both situation are present in foundry environment. Exposure to how working conditions is a common work situation to foundry workers. At the same time, musculoskeletal problems could also be encountered since the workers are required to handle loads. Exposure to various air contaminants and physical conditions including noise, heat, and vibration are also considered potential health hazards in foundry operations. Discussion on factors influencing the hard and hot job deals mostly on the environmental, individual, situational and job based condition.

1. Environmental factors

Environmental problems are those that involve the surroundings of the worker. Heat stress, noise and vibration are the typical problems that one will experience in foundry operations.

Dan Macleod (1995) states that the environment in which work is performed can directly and indirectly affect not only the comfort and health of people, but also the quality and efficiency of the work being done. It was also emphasized by Suzanne H. Rodgers (1986) – the principal author and editor of “Ergonomic Design for People at work”. Rodgers discussed the importance of temperature in a workplace stating that temperature can strongly influence how effectively a task is performed. Hot, humid conditions added to the demands of moderately heavy to heavy physical work might cause excessive fatigue and potential health risks.

Rodgers (1986) also cites that sweating which is associated with heat discomfort can also contribute to unsafe situations in the workplace, such as the following:

* Wet hands make holding onto objects or equipment controls more difficult and that increases the chance of losing control of a tool or a load.

*...

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