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Expectancy theory of motivation
The thorough understanding and effective practice of motivation is critical to obtaining maximum output from employees, which leads directly to maximal organizational performance. One approach that attempts to dissect motivation and expose its leverage points, for managerial manipulation, is Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation. The rest of this paper discusses this theory and applies it to the scenario described in the case under review.
The key thrust of the theory is that each employee consciously regulates the extent to which they apply themselves to their work, both increases and decreases, depending on what they perceive they are receiving for their work at the individual level. The mechanisms around expectancy theory revolve around three key components. The first component is effort, being the individual’s deliberate exertion and input into their role or duty. The second component is the performance that results from the effort expended. This performance is the deliverable or deliverables which the organization desires from the employee. The third component is the outcome, which is that which the employee receives for the performance they will contributed to through their effort.
The theory also points out two relationships that complete the model. The first is that effort and performance are related by expectancy. In other words an employee assesses whether the expected performance can be reasonably attained by an effort level within the range of their ability. Thus if an employee believes that the performance level required is beyond their effort they have low expectancy that the goals can be attained. Thus their motivation to apply effort is low. Conversely if an employee perceives that a given performance level is reasonably attainable, even if the effort has to be redoubled, then they are likely to be motivated to apply the necessary effort. The second relationship links performance to outcome through...
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