The Western Frontier

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Date Submitted: 05/29/2008 07:02 PM

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Five Civilized Tribes is five Native American nations, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole, considered civilized by white settlers during that time period because they had adopted many of the colonist’s customs and had good relations with their neighbors.

John M. Chivington and the Sand Creek Massacre happened On November 29, 1864; Colorado Militia troops attacked an encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho American Indians. The Indians thought they were safe because A proclamation was sent forth declaring that all Indians who did not wish to be killed could put themselves under army protection, and they thought the government would save them.

The Fetterman Massacre happened on December 21, when eighty men rode out of Fort Kearny to support a wood-cutting expedition that had come under attack. The wood was absolutely necessary to the fort building. A thousand Cheyenne and Arapaho warriors led by Crazy Horse and Red Cloud waited for men to come onto their territory and when they did Fetterman led the men into a massacre. The Indians called the battle “The Battle of the Hundred Slain”

The Great Sioux Reserve The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on dialect and culture: Isanti who lived in the east of the Dakotas, Minnesota, and northern Iowa. Ihanktowan or "Village-at-the-end" the tribe lived in the Minnesota River area, they are considered to be the middle Sioux. Also the Teton "Dwellers on the Prairie" were the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture. Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations Dakotas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and also in Canada areas.

Sitting Bull was a Sioux chief, born about 1837. He was the principal chief of the Dakota Sioux, who were driven from their reservation in the Black Hills by miners in 1876, and took up arms against the whites and friendly Indians, refusing to be transported to the Indian Territory. In June, 1876, they defeated and...