Erik Erikson Eight Stages of Man - Excerpts from Wiki

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The material is a summary of Erik Erikson Theory on Eight stages of man from Wikipedia

The stages

Hope: Trust vs. Mistrust (Infants, 0 to 1 year)

* Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust

* Virtue: Hope

* The first stage of Erik Erikson's centers around the infant's basic needs being met by the parents.

* If caregivers are consistent sources of food, comfort, and affection, an infant learns trust- that others are dependable and reliable.

* If they are neglectful, or perhaps even abusive, the infant instead learns mistrust- that the world is in an undependable, unpredictable, and possibly dangerous place.

Will: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (Toddlers, 2 to 3 years)

* Psychosocial Crisis: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

* Main Question: "Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?"

* Virtue: Will

* As the child gains control over eliminative functions and motor abilities, they begin to explore their surroundings.

* As they gain increased muscular coordination and mobility, toddlers become capable of satisfying some of their own needs. They begin to feed themselves, wash and dress themselves, and use the bathroom.

* If caregivers encourage self-sufficient behavior, toddlers develop a sense of autonomy- a sense of being able to handle many problems on their own.

* But if caregivers demand too much too soon, refuse to let children perform tasks of which they are capable, or ridicule early attempts at self-sufficiency, children may instead develop shame and doubt about their ability to handle problems.

Purpose: Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool, 4 to 6 years)

* Psychosocial Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt

* Main Question: "Am I good or am I bad?"

* Virtue: Purpose

* Related Elements in Society: ideal prototypes/roles

* The child is learning to master the world around him, learning basic skills and principles of physics.

* At this stage, the child wants to begin and complete his own...