Moral Theories

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Moral Theories:

1. Deontology: a duty based moral theory in which some behaviours are morally obligatory or prohibited regardless of the good consequences that may be achieved by doing them or not doing them

* Beneficence: acts performed for the overall benefit of a patient, designed to improve his quality or length of life

* Categorical imperative: a universally binding, unconditional, or absolute moral requirement

* Autonomy: the general ability of the individual to govern herself, to formulate and pursue her own life plans

* Prima facie duty: a duty that is morally obligatory unless is conflicts with another moral duty, in which case the more pressing duty takes precedence

2. Utilitarianism: the belief that we ought to maximize benefit or good consequences and minimize harm or negative consequences for the greatest number of individuals affected by a situation or our actions

* Moral Agent: any rational, mentally mature individual who is capable of understanding the various obligations and action options of a situation and who is held responsible for the choices she makes.

* Nonmaleficence: the medical principle of doing no long-term harm to a patient or worsening his condition

* Justice: the duty to give each individual equal consideration based on the contextual details of the situation, or to treat similar cases similarly and different cases differently, according to the needs of the situation

3. The Ethic of Care: A two-pronged theory of moral development widely used to guide actions and resolve conflicts by either minimizing and avoiding harm and or maintaining, protecting, and creating positive relationships

4. The Four Principles of Biomedical Ethics

* 1. Respect for autonomy

* 2. Beneficence

* 3. Nonmaleficence

* 4. Justice

* Moral Community: a group of moral persons or moral agents, individuals who agree to voluntarily limit their behaviour in order to achieve personal and social...