Nervous System Study Guide

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Anatomy review for the nervous system - Week 12 Study Guide

1. Distinguish the difference between neuron, neuroglial cells, Schwann cells, neurofibrils, and astrocytes. Neurons are structural and functional cells reacting to the physical and chemical changes in their environment. Neuroglial cells are the supporting cells necessary for nourishing and maintaining the neurons, among other functions. Schwann cells are the cells that wrap around nerve fibers to form a protective myelin sheath. Neurofibrils are fibrils in the cytoplasm in nerve cells. Astrocytes are star shaped cells located between neurons and blood vessels.

2. What is the difference between dendrites and axons? Dendrite carries the impulse towards the body cell, and usually has multiple dendrites per cell body. Axons carry the impulse away from the body cells and usually have only one per body cell.

3. What color does myelin (the lipid-protein layers that form a sheath around an axon) appear? It appears white.

4. What are the 2 main parts of the nervous system? The Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System.

5. What are 3 functions of the nervous system? It detects changes in and outside of the body, makes decision based on the information it has received, and stimulates the muscle of glands to respond.

6. What is the junction between 2 communicating neurons called? It’s called a synapse

7. What are the simplest nerve pathways called? The simplest would be Reflex Arc

8. Put the following in the correct sequence to identify the path a reflex arc takes: effector, sensory neuron, motor neuron, receptor, interneuron. It starts with receptor at the end of sensory nerve, which leads to interneuron, who communicates with motor neuron, who passes onto effector.

9. What are the membranes called that are located between the bone and soft tissue of the nervous system? Meninges are the membranes located between the bone and soft tissue of the...